This book chapter characterizes complexity, frames protected areas as part of a social-ecological system, and provides strategies and examples of how to engage complexity as a benefit to the system.

This paper focuses on how systems thinking can be applied to conservation through systems mapping. The process can  target changes and inform decision-making and evaluation that support a more adaptive and responsive system.

This discussion paper for the 2021 World Conservation Congress discusses transformative conservation through a systems lens, offers examples of transformative conservation in practice, and alignment with IUCN’s Nature 2030: One Nature, One Future program.

This synthesis paper provides an overview of the social-ecological systems research of the past two decades including three commonly used frameworks.  

A foundational article on key social dimensions of adaptive governance and sources of resilience for adaptability and transformation.

The article discusses the role of institutional and spatial scale in social, political, and economic aspects in the resiliency of protected areas.

Synthesis article of research and scholarship of adaptive governance over the past decade that informs a research agenda for the future on this topic.

A document developed by the IUCN Resilience Theme group that connects twelve ecosystem approach principles with resilience thinking perspective.

The article compares case studies from Sweden, Thailand, and Australia to assess how diverse governance influences outcomes for transforming social-ecological systems.

Applies social-ecological system theory to protected areas and discusses the role of ecosystem services, connectivity, and relationships between people and nature.

A foundational article on key components of resilience, adaptability, and transformability in the context of social-ecological systems.